For Batch refining the oil, there are three basic processes in the refinery. First process is neutralizing the oil in the neutralizer to eliminate the Free Fatty Acids (FFA) by putting caustic soda. Oil is heated up to about 60 Centigrade by thermic fluid coils and oil is stirred by stirrer. The soap stock will form because of the chemical reaction and then settle dowm to the bottom of the neutralizer and then will be moved to the soap span.
Neutralized oil is drawn into the second vessel called bleacher where color of oil is eliminated by bleaching process with aid of chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching earth. Oil is generally heated up to 110 Centigrade by thermic fluid coils. Stirring is also continued. Bleaching process is done under vacuum.
Then bleached oil flows to the filter press where bleaching earth and chemicals are separated and then clean bleached oil will be drawn to deodorizer where oil is heated above 110 Centigrade through thermic fluid coils and then live steam is given to the oil from the bottom steam nozzles and temperature of oil is raised up to 200 to 220 Centigrade through thermic fluid coils. The entire process happens under high vacuum. The odor of the oil will be removed. Then it goes to cooler where water circulating coils take away heat and oil is cooled. Again it goes to second filter press where completely refined and transparent color less oil is obtained.
In the refining process, Thermic Fluid Boiler, Vacuum Pump, Barometric Condenser, Catchols, Steam Generator have their particular roles.These equipments are connected with the vessels through pipelines as part of the refinery.